Published: 8 April 2021
Authors: Jennifer A. Bartell, Lea M. Sommer, Rasmus L. Marvig, Marianne Skov, Tacjana Pressler, Søren Molin, Helle Krogh Johansen
Source: This abstract has been sourced from NZ Respiratory Research Review Issue 191
Whenever Pseudomonas aeruginosa is cultured from cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airways, the primary goal is eradication by antibiotic therapy. Success is defined by ≥6 months of negative bacterial airway cultures. However, we suspect that P. aeruginosa persists in airways without clinical detection for long periods.
Out of 298 P. aeruginosa-infected Copenhagen CF patients, we identified 80 with complete P. aeruginosa monitoring records and measured their maximum P. aeruginosa-free eradication periods (MEP). Isolates from 72 patients were whole-genome sequenced (n=567) and clone typed. Select isolate relatedness was examined through phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic multivariate modelling.
69 (86%) patients exhibited eradication in the monitoring period (2002–2018). Sequenced isolates bridged the MEP of 42 patients, and the same clone type persisted over the MEP in 18 (43%) patients. Patients with failed eradication were on average treated more intensively with antibiotics, but this may be linked to their more severe pre-MEP infection trajectories. Of the 42 patients, 26 also had sinus surgery; the majority (n=15) showed MEPs adjacent to surgery, and only five had persisting clone types. Importantly, combined phylogenetic–phenomic evaluation suggests that persisting clone types are a result of re-emergence of the same strain rather than re-infection from the environment, and similar relatedness is exhibited by paired lower and upper airway samples and in transmission cases.
In conclusion, nearly half of CF patients with supposed eradication may not truly be cleared of their original bacteria according to omics-based monitoring. This distinct cohort that is persistently infected would probably benefit from tailored antibiotic therapy.
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