Published: 20 May 2021

Authors: Ju Gang Nam, Minchul Kim, Jongchan Park, Eui Jin Hwang, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jung Hee Hong, Jin Mo Goo, Chang Min Park

Source: This abstract has been sourced from NZ Respiratory Research Review Issue 193


    We aimed to develop a deep learning algorithm detecting 10 common abnormalities (DLAD-10) on chest radiographs, and to evaluate its impact in diagnostic accuracy, timeliness of reporting and workflow efficacy.

    DLAD-10 was trained with 146 717 radiographs from 108 053 patients using a ResNet34-based neural network with lesion-specific channels for 10 common radiological abnormalities (pneumothorax, mediastinal widening, pneumoperitoneum, nodule/mass, consolidation, pleural effusion, linear atelectasis, fibrosis, calcification and cardiomegaly). For external validation, the performance of DLAD-10 on a same-day computed tomography (CT)-confirmed dataset (normal:abnormal 53:147) and an open-source dataset (PadChest; normal:abnormal 339:334) was compared with that of three radiologists. Separate simulated reading tests were conducted on another dataset adjusted to real-world disease prevalence in the emergency department, consisting of four critical, 52 urgent and 146 nonurgent cases. Six radiologists participated in the simulated reading sessions with and without DLAD-10.

    DLAD-10 exhibited area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.895–1.00 in the CT-confirmed dataset and 0.913–0.997 in the PadChest dataset. DLAD-10 correctly classified significantly more critical abnormalities (95.0% (57/60)) than pooled radiologists (84.4% (152/180); p=0.01). In simulated reading tests for emergency department patients, pooled readers detected significantly more critical (70.8% (17/24) versus 29.2% (7/24); p=0.006) and urgent (82.7% (258/312) versus 78.2% (244/312); p=0.04) abnormalities when aided by DLAD-10. DLAD-10 assistance shortened the mean±sd time-to-report critical and urgent radiographs (640.5±466.3 versus 3371.0±1352.5 s and 1840.3±1141.1 versus 2127.1±1468.2 s, respectively; all p<0.01) and reduced the mean±sd interpretation time (20.5±22.8 versus 23.5±23.7 s; p<0.001).

    DLAD-10 showed excellent performance, improving radiologists' performance and shortening the reporting time for critical and urgent cases.

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